The International Journal of Tropical Agriculture is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal publishes papers on fundamental, basic and applied aspects of tropical agricultue. The term “agriculture” includes the basic and applied science of soil and water management as well as crop and livestock production and management. Subjects covered in the journal include agricultural production, protection and basic sciences, and animal and veterinary sciences. Agronomists, plant, soil, animal, environmental and agricultural scientists and others working on problems of crop and livestock production, protection and management in tropics will find the journal useful. Of immediate relevance to agriculturists-both industrial and academic-this unique publication also has long-range value for the betterment or rural people in tropics. Contributions are welcomed from scientists all over the world, particularly those working in tropical and sub-tropical countries.